The nature of the social context matters! Summing up, how can we make the most of technological investment today? Practically speaking, and inspired by the socio-technical approach, I would like to propose the following lessons for managers seeking to make the most of new technology:.
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Technology isn't a cure-all: the socio-technical approach | LSE Management
To ensure effective, long-term, and sustainable results, there must be a transition during which the required changes are introduced, tested, understood, and accepted. People have to let go of existing behaviors and attitudes and move to new behaviors and attitudes that achieve and sustain the desired business outcomes. That is why OCM is a critical component of any enterprise transformation program: It provides a systematic approach that supports both the organization and the individuals within it as they plan, accept, implement, and transition from the present state to the future state.
Studies have found that the lack of effective OCM in an IT modernization project leads to a higher percentage of failure.
This demonstrates the importance of integrating OCM principles into every aspect of an IT modernization or business transformation program. MITRE systems engineers need to assess change as a process and work in partnership with our sponsors to develop appraisals and recommendations to identify and resolve complex organizational issues. The change process depicted in Figure 2 is designed to help assess where an organization is in the change process and to determine what it needs to do as it moves through the process.
By defining and completing a change process, an organization can better define and document the activities that must be managed during the transition phase. Moving through these stages will help ensure effective, long-term, and sustainable results. These stages unfold as an organization moves through the transition phase in which the required transformational changes are introduced, tested, understood, and accepted in a manner that enables individuals to let go of their existing behaviors and attitudes and develop any new skills needed to sustain desired business outcomes.
Transforming the Organization: A Social-technical Approach
It is very common for organizations to lose focus or create new initiatives without ever completing the change process for a specific program or project. It is critical to the success of a transformation program that the organization recognizes this fact and is prepared to continue through the process and not lose focus as the organizational change initiative is implemented. Commitment to completing the change process is vital to a successful outcome.
Information on forming a transition strategy to document and assist with maintaining focus can be found in the SEG article " Formulation of Organizational Transformation Strategies. In any enterprise transformation effort, there are a number of variables that exist simultaneously and affect the acceptance of change by an organization.
The Transformation Process: An Introduction
These variables range from Congressional mandates to the organization's culture and leadership to the attitude and behavior of the lowest-ranking employee. At MITRE, social scientists use the Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change, or other approaches in line with the sponsor's environment and culture, to assess readiness and plan to implement change. The Burke-Litwin Model identifies critical transformational and transactional factors that may impact the successful adoption of the planned change. In most government transformation efforts, the external environment such as Congressional mandates , strategy, leadership, and culture can be the most powerful drivers for creating organizational change.
Further information on performing organizational assessments is found in the SEG article " Performing Organizational Assessments. Most organizations will ultimately follow one of three approaches to transformation. The type of approach is related to the culture and type of organization e. The effectiveness of a sponsor's data driven change strategy will be dependent upon a a well-researched analysis that the transformation is feasible, b a demonstration that illustrates how the transformation has been successful in similar situations, and c a clear description of the results of the transformation.
People will adopt the transform when they understand the results of the transformation and the rationale behind it. For this change strategy to be successful, it is dependent on all impacted organizational units and individuals participating both in the change including system design, development, and implementation of the change and their change "re-education. In its strongest spot lies its greatest weakness — the freedom of choice and responsibility.
Not all the organizations can rely on the sound mind and decisions of their employees, sometimes the consequences are too serious and no risk is allowed. Apart from not being applicable to all kinds of organization, there are some other negative sides of socio-technical system. One of them is the fact that it is far from being easy to create autonomous groups which will fulfil their purpose.
Some of their characteristics previously mentioned as advantages can be perceived in a different way. Task differentiation lies in the core of the autonomous groups. It is easy to define, but hard to accomplish. For some managers it is a great source of trouble to form groups which characteristics distinguish them from others, but not too much, as they are still part of a wider context. If there is no balanced differentiation, socio-technical system can be not just ineffective, but also damaging for the organization.
The problem lies in the fact that there are no strict rules how to form autonomous groups, because it is up to members to build their structure and up to managers to find them place in the organization. If there are no clear boundaries and connections with others groups, its members will not experience the benefit of meaningful work, as they will not be able to perceive the whole picture of the process, which is the purpose of this system.
Another problem also stems from the concept of autonomous group: task control, as defined by Cummings , refers to the extent to which employees can regulate their behaviour to convert raw materials into finished products. Simply, this means that group members choose on their own work methods and sequence of work activities. If the groups consist of specialists, this is an excellent method for dealing with the unexpected and stressful situations, because there is no need for permission for changing the working routine when the time is of great importance.
But on the other hand, too much freedom cannot be given to all groups and reasons can be different. Managers may believe that the staff is qualified enough to take that responsibility, but then in the in the end it can turn out that they were wrong. Same as with the task differentiation — it is quite challenging to find the balance between too much and too little freedom.
- Agenda Relevance: A Study in Formal Pragmatics;
- The Men & the Boys.
- What is the Socio-Technical System Approach?.
- Digitalisation, Innovation, and Transformation;
- Socio-technical theory - IS Theory.
- Best Practices and Lessons Learned.
Both ends of that continuum lead to inefficiency. Also, managers who control these groups have to be aware of the fact that too much interference is not desirable. They have to keep the distance and be more of guides than controllers in a usual sense. The last, but not least important disadvantage of this system that will be mentioned here is the lack of individuality.
Almost every individual strives to develop to their fullest potentials and there is less possibility for something like that when one operates as a team member. On the one hand, teamwork contributes to the high spirit of employees, but on the other it can cause a decrease in motivation of individual members.
Some of them can even feel frustrated because they cannot show their potentials. This could be a problem especially with above-average talented people who would be more helpful if they acted on their own. Also, when socio-technical system is implemented, the hierarchy is flatter, which implies that there are fewer opportunities for climbing the career ladder and it is widely known that this serves as the motivation for many of us.
This table shows that socio-technical system is more human-oriented than others. As I advocate the humanistic approach to management and organizing, I believe that it is much better than bureaucratic or scientific approach. People are not machines and although they are able to adapt to new situations, their power to do so has a limit.
Once that limit is reached, consequences can be catastrophic. Socio-technical system balances needs and strivings of both. It is true that it takes a lot of effort to build this system successfully. It largely depends on effective communication channels, qualified staff and appropriate use of technology in each sector.
Related Transforming the Organization: A Social-Technical Approach
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