Techniques and Concepts of High-Energy Physics


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They then compare the outcomes of the simulations with actual experimental data to test their theories.

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In some situations, however, the calculations are too hard to allow predictions from first principles. This is particularly true for phenomena that involve the strong nuclear force, which governs how quarks bind together into protons and neutrons and how these particles form atomic nuclei, says Christine Muschik, a theoretical physicist at the University of Innsbruck in Austria and a member of the simulation team.

Many researchers hope that future quantum computers will help to solve this problem.

Techniques and Concepts of High-Energy Physics | Harrison B. Prosper | Springer

A computer made of a handful of qubits can perform many calculations simultaneously, and can complete certain tasks exponentially faster than an ordinary computer. Esteban Martinez, an experimental physicist at the University of Innsbruck, and his colleagues completed a proof of concept for a simulation of a high-energy physics experiment in which energy is converted into matter, creating an electron and its antiparticle, a positron.

The team used a tried-and-tested type of quantum computer in which an electromagnetic field traps four ions in a row, each one encoding a qubit, in a vacuum. This coaxed the ions to perform logic operations, the basic steps in any computer calculation. After sequences of about steps, each lasting a few milliseconds, the team looked at the state of the ions using a digital camera.

Each of the four ions represented a location, two for particles and two for antiparticles, and the orientation of the ion revealed whether or not a particle or an antiparticle had been created at that location. He and his collaborators describe their results on 22 June in Nature 1. Four qubits constitute a rudimentary quantum computer; the fabled applications of future quantum computers, such as for breaking down huge numbers into prime factors, will require hundreds of qubits and complex error-correction codes.

Many researchers hope that future quantum computers will help to solve this problem. A computer made of a handful of qubits can perform many calculations simultaneously, and can complete certain tasks exponentially faster than an ordinary computer. Esteban Martinez, an experimental physicist at the University of Innsbruck, and his colleagues completed a proof of concept for a simulation of a high-energy physics experiment in which energy is converted into matter, creating an electron and its antiparticle, a positron.

The team used a tried-and-tested type of quantum computer in which an electromagnetic field traps four ions in a row, each one encoding a qubit, in a vacuum. This coaxed the ions to perform logic operations, the basic steps in any computer calculation.

Techniques and Concepts of High-Energy Physics IV

After sequences of about steps, each lasting a few milliseconds, the team looked at the state of the ions using a digital camera. Each of the four ions represented a location, two for particles and two for antiparticles, and the orientation of the ion revealed whether or not a particle or an antiparticle had been created at that location. He and his collaborators describe their results on 22 June in Nature 1. Four qubits constitute a rudimentary quantum computer; the fabled applications of future quantum computers, such as for breaking down huge numbers into prime factors, will require hundreds of qubits and complex error-correction codes.

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But for physical simulations, which can tolerate small margins of error, 30 to 40 qubits could already be useful, Martinez says. John Chiaverini, a physicist who works on quantum computing at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, says that the experiment might be difficult to scale up without significant modifications. Muschik says that her team is already making plans to use two-dimensional configurations of ions.

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Techniques and Concepts of High-Energy Physics Techniques and Concepts of High-Energy Physics
Techniques and Concepts of High-Energy Physics Techniques and Concepts of High-Energy Physics
Techniques and Concepts of High-Energy Physics Techniques and Concepts of High-Energy Physics
Techniques and Concepts of High-Energy Physics Techniques and Concepts of High-Energy Physics
Techniques and Concepts of High-Energy Physics Techniques and Concepts of High-Energy Physics
Techniques and Concepts of High-Energy Physics Techniques and Concepts of High-Energy Physics
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