Das, Environment and Ecology 21 Bhakat A. Bhatterjee, P. Maiti R. Das, U. Kanp, Allelopathy Journal 17 1 Molinillo, R.
Varela, J. Galindo, Pest Management Science 63 Itani, Y. Nakahata, H. Mali, M. Kanade, Annals of Biological Research 5 3 Mondal, Md. Asaduzzaman, T. Asao, American Journal of Plant Sciences 6 Sampietro, E.
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Vattuone, Bioassays with whole plants and plant organs. Sampietro, C. Catalan, M. Vattuone eds. Narwal, D. Sampietro, Allelopathy and Allelochemicals. Sullivan, J. Manuppello, C. Piparo, F. Fratev, F. Lemke, P. Mazzatorta, M. Smiesko, J. Fritz, E. Benfenati Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 4 Leather, Journal of Chemical Ecology 9 Adler, C. Chase, HortScience 42 Monirul Islam, H. B — Soil and Plant Science 63 8 Hunt, A. Smith, H. Woolhouse, Planta 2 Brown, R. Brown, Mutation Research 40 Wolfreys, P. Hepburn, Food and Chemical Toxicology 40 Inderjit, Canadian Journal of Botany 76 Inderjit, J.
Ohno, Journal of Environmental Quality 30 Rizvi, V. Rizvi, Allelopathy: basic and applied aspects. Chapman and Hall, London pp.
Reinhardt, M. Causa, C. Marian, B. Hess, Physical Review B54 Serafimova, M. Gatnik, A. Ames, Science T, Version 4.
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Mortelmans, E. Zeiger, Mutation Research Hansen, S. Mika, T. Schroeter, A. Sutter, A. Steger-Hartmann, N. Aggrawal, P. Banerjee, S. Talapatra, International Journal of Advanced Research 3 7 Dhar, K. Gupta, S.
Talapatra, World Scientific News 37 Zhu, T. This extensive use of chemicals in plant protection has given rise to concerns about pesticide residues in the environment and to the development of pesticide resistance by many organisms. Alternative approaches to plant protection include the continued use of pesticides as components of integrated pest management programmes and more radical developments, such as enhancing and harnessing the array of defensive chemicals produced naturally by plants. An increasing body of evidence points to their ability to contribute to plant protection Lovett, Allelopathic chemicals have already been used to defend crop plants against insects, nematodes and diseases however parallel approaches in control of weeds may be possible by finding compounds that inhibit seed germination, inhibit plant growth or prevent progagule production.
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There is a greater emphasis on the control of weeds in sustainable agricultural systems by reduced or non-chemical means that are compatible with reduced tillage and both traditional and recent weed management practices Regnier and Janke, Allelopathic elements are involved in practically every aspects of plant growth; they can act from stimulants to suppressants. The intelligent exploitation of these processes can be a major break through in the agriculture sector.
Crop rotation, competitive varieties, allelopathic varieties, cover crops, tillage, relay cropping, dead and living mulches, flame weeding and ridge tillage together with classical biological control agents is being employed. Allelopathic interactions between plants and other organisms may become an alternative to herbicides, insecticides and nematicide for weed, disease and insect control. The recognition of the role allelopathy may have in producing optimum crop yields is of fundamental importance Waller, Natural phytotoxic compounds : Green plants produce hundreds of thousands of compounds that are not involved in the primary metabolism of the plants secondary products ; the compounds involved in interspecific chemical interactions allelopathy with higher plants are often phytotoxic or herbicidal to other species or even to the species producing them Duke, Allelopathy is the direct influence of a chemical released from one living plant on the development and growth of another plant.
Secondary compounds in plants may act as attractants or repellants, phagostimulants or antifeedants, nutrients or toxins to phytophagous insects. In initial efforts to develop botanical herbicides from allelochemicals, active principles of allelopathic chemicals have been isolated and identified in Asia and the U.
Kim, Four percent out of 10, rice germplasm lines possess various degrees of allelopathic activity against certain rice weeds Smith, These lines differ in origin, grain type, plant height and maturity, which are desirable in developing commercially acceptable cultivars with allelopathic traits Dilday, Mattice et al. These inhibitory rice accessions contain four to six compounds that inhibit the growth of this weed.
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Allelochemicals production: To establish the cause and effect relationship of allelopathy one needs to demonstrate the production of allelochemicals Table 1 by the host plant, their transport from the host plant to the affected plants in the surroundings, and exposure of affected plants to these chemicals in sufficient quantity for a sufficient time to cause the observed allelopathy Einhellig, A key to the deciphering of the mechanisms of allelopathy could be through an understanding of such soil processes as retention and transformation, which affect the fate and transport of allelochemicals.
While dealing with allelochemicals in plants it is important to consider stresses like temperature, mineral deficiency, water stress, diseases and herbicides applied.
These stresses have been shown to affect the amount of the allelochemicals produced. Toxic compounds of crop plant origin accumulate in agricultural soils. A great variety of organic compounds are released by numerous plant species, each having an active life in the soil that is determined by factors such as volatility, leaching, adsorption and microbial action. While making use of these chemicals it is also necessary to minimize the influence of toxins on crop plants. It is important that the utility of allelopathy be based on treatments of short duration rather than those that persist for long periods in soil.
Most plant residues contain or produce substances which are inhibitory to plant growth to some extent, and that the toxic effect is normally of an ephemeral nature disappearing within 14 to 21 days.
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The degree of toxicity depends on the type of residue, maturity and extent of weathering. Reviewing literature both recent and old, it is evident from the contradictory results often obtained, substances highly toxic, nontoxic, stimulatory to plants can be obtained during the decomposition of similar plant residues. Plant residues form various sources constitute an important component of the soil.
During decomposition many complex interactions, transformations and synthesis occur. Thus at any one time, the soils and the environment of plant roots could contain a vast variety of chemical compounds, many of which, no doubt, have important effects on all phases of plant development. When phytotoxic compounds are produced there are problems of accumulation, stability, persistence and concentrations of these compounds in soils that have to be considered. There are also questions regarding the chemical nature of the phytotoxic compounds, their specific effect on plants in the absence of other causal factors and their overall ecological significance.
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