Cephalopod Culture

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The future of nautilus culture systems depends upon a better understanding of both wild and captive reproduction. The success of these culture systems would open up a brand new area of research utilizing different age groups and generations to investigate current and novel questions. This chapter reviews the importance of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis , as a potential species for aquaculture and its applications.

It provides an overview of cuttlefish culture, its current state of art and future trends. Present cuttlefish culture-related research and recently developed technologies are described. This includes a description of the culture systems for the different life stages, broodstock and egg acclimatization to captivity and management, hatchlings, juvenile and adult-rearing methodologies.

Values of fecundity and fertility obtained in different culture conditions variables include tanks, stocking densities, sex ratios and food ; a characterization of different types of cuttlefish egg morphology; growth rates, mortality, feeding rates and food conversions at the hatchling and juvenile stages including live, frozen and artificial diets ; and a comparison between different growout setups are presented.

Finally, current bottlenecks are enumerated, prospects for future research are suggested and an overview of whole animal use by the industry is given. The pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis , is one of the largest and economically important sepiid cuttlefish in the Indo-Southwest Pacific region. The cuttlefish benthic habit is one of the advantages for high-density culture which results in high survival.

The aquaculture process comprises a collection of live broodstocks, incubation of eggs, nursing of young and growout. The culture methodology is studied in tropical and temperate countries either in closed or in opened seawater systems. Several consecutive generations can be cultured in both systems.

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Different culture conditions yield different results in growth, final size and longevity of life span. Success in training the pharaoh cuttlefish to feed on dead food yields the success of the culture. The cuttlefish can be cultured as human food, fresh and frozen, ornamental and experimental animals. Various sizes of cuttlefish supplying such various purposes can be produced through difference in culture periods. Innate feeding on specific live prey during the early phase of cuttlefish life is the bottleneck for large-scale culture.

The spineless cuttlefish, Sepiella inermis, is an economic species of the Indian Ocean. This species can tolerate environment fluctuations and culture conditions very well, which favour aquaculture. The culture methodology is comparable to other sepiid cuttlefish, particularly Sepia pharaonis, comprising collection of live broodstocks, incubation of egg masses, nursing of young and growout phase.

The planktonic phase of hatchling is different from Sepia cuttlefish. The spineless cuttlefish Sepiella japonica has been cultured in China in recent years. After acclimatization to captivity, spawning induction and mating of the broodstock, the females lay eggs attaching to the artificial substratum. The hatching period lasts for 17—26 days. The initial feedings are live cladoceran, copepods and enriched Artemia nauplii. The spineless cuttlefishes are sexually mature after 90— days, and mating is observed after that.

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Spawning occurs as early as day The amount of spawned eggs is — per individual. Bobtail squids of the genus Euprymna are small in size with a benthic habit. Such small size results in their insignificance in fisheries and aquaculture focused for human consumption. The unique ability of the voluntary adhesion system and symbiotic bacteria used for bioluminescence is now a primary research focus with potential industrial and biomedical applications.

Their small size is well suited for the home aquarium with small volume. Culture of this cephalopod group can therefore serve both research and recreational purposes. Aquaculture in the laboratory provides valuable information for culture methodology that is utilized throughout the entire life cycle of several consecutive generations. This small size and benthic habit of Euprymna are advantageous for small-scale closed or open seawater culture systems.

Major trends for culturing Euprymna are similar to other cephalopod groups, particularly benthic octopus that also produce planktonic hatchlings. Reduction of the cost of production is necessary for future large-scale production, with novel protocols for live feed requirements of planktonic young in the nursing phase. The medium-sized loliginid squids Loligo vulgaris and Doryteuthis opalescens have a long record as experimental models in cephalopod culture.

  • Cephalopod culture: Current status of main biological models and research priorities.
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The respective size of eggs 2. The inherent difficulties and costs in providing food and large volume tanks to hold groups of schooling squid have an impact on profitability. However, the data obtained in culture experiments involving these species have been useful in a wider biological context.

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This chapter summarizes our present knowledge of their culture potential refraining from suggesting standardized methodologies. Sepioteuthis lessoniana is a demersal neritic species that inhabits coral and rock reefs, seaweed, sea grass beds, and estuaries. Due to its wide distribution range in the Indo-Pacific region, S. The objectives of aquaculture studies are the production of human food in tropical countries and experimental animals in temperate countries. This rapid growth results from a high feeding rate and requires a massive supply of live feed organisms during the early phase of life.

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  4. The grow-out phase begins after S. Further studies of artificial feed or mass production of live feed is required in order to make aquaculture of S. The method and studies of S. The marbled octopus, Amphioctopus aegina , is a moderately sized benthic octopus, inhabiting muddy substrates in the coastal zone of the Indian and Western Pacific Ocean. Capture fishing of octopus in these regions includes this species.

    The aquaculture methodology comprises collection of broodstocks from the wild, nursing of the eggs and brooding females, nursing of the planktonic young and growout of the benthic young. All phases of the culture process prior to growout can be performed on a small scale with a L tank. The general task for feeding is to feed planktonic food to the planktonic young for about 30 days, and to then provide benthic food after the settling stage. Culturing of Amphioctopus aegina as a model for scientific experiments and home aquaria is the future commercial task.

    Advances in controlled cultivation of Patagonian red octopus Enteroctopus megalocyathus Gould have fostered biological, physiological and nutritional studies of the species. Research on cultivation of E. Experimental evidence indicates that it is possible to produce E. A closed culture system of O. Adult O. After that age, increments on ingested food are observed together with an exponential growth rate.

    The culture system has been organized in two steps: 1 ongrowing of hatchlings and 2 ongrowing of juveniles. In the first step, hatchlings are cultured in indoor 7. Detailed seawater characteristics and other useful data are included in the present chapter in an attempt to offer an overview of O. Octopus mimus Gould is a member of the Octopodidae family. The commercial supply of octopus has been diminished due to overfishing in many key fisheries. This chapter presents the results of the research on the reproduction of O.

    This species is particularly suitable for aquaculture; however, commercial cultures cannot be conducted until sound knowledge about cultivation technology and the physiology of the feeding processes in paralarvae are available. On the other hand, our studies have demonstrated that adequate growth rates of O. Octopus minor Sasaki is widely distributed along the coastal waters of China, Korean Peninsula, as well as south of Sakhalien to Japan.

    As an important economic cephalopod, culture of O. After capture and broodstock acclimatization to captivity, spawning induction and mating, eggs are spawned at the artificial substratum.

    Cephalopod culture: current status of main biological models and research priorities.

    Females are responsible for protecting the eggs. The mantle length and total length of new hatchlings range from 8. Hatchlings are benthic, going directly to the tank bottom. Cladocerans, copepods and enriched Artemia nauplii are adequate initial feeds for the hatchling rearing. After that, a mixed fresh diet such as juvenile crab, shellfish and shrimp becomes the main feed. Under indoor culture conditions, the average weights of males and females at days are There have been many attempts worldwide to produce in captivity juveniles of Octopus vulgaris, one the most studied cephalopod species in the world because of its very strong market interest.

    This chapter reviews the different methods used to obtain and maintain broodstocks and the rearing technologies applied to the paralarvae. The main parameters and culture methods to rear the planktonic stage are discussed and a protocol for the rearing of the paralarvae is suggested. The main bottlenecks in the cultivation of this species are emphasized, and further research topics are suggested, including both technical and biological aspects.

    In laboratory trials, the best growth and survival of the paralarval phase is currently achieved by feeding a mixed live diet composed of enriched Artemia and crustacean zoeae. However, this method is not transferable to a commercial scale as there is limited availability of live zoeae. In order to advance from a research to an industrial scale, it is essential to develop an inert diet with the appropriate nutritional composition to be supplied from an age of 1 month onwards.

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    Another option would be to develop an appropriate enrichment protocol for Artemia so that its composition simulates more closely that of crustacean larvae or wild zooplankton. A protocol for the first month of O. Relatively high survival rates and paralarvae dry weights of 1.

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